Предприниматель | Информационно-аналитический журнал - Part 54

In 2010, some Ukrainian providers were on the verge of negative profitability

Almost a third of the adult population of Ukraine are now Internet users.

In 2010, according to providers, the price of Internet access noticeably subsided: in the III quarter prices of some companies dropped to a level of profitability. The editors asked the network provider, as prices change, “on line” in the new year.

Note: Data on the market

According to “iKS Consulting”, at the end of III quarter 2010, the total number of broadband subscribers (individual and corporate) in Ukraine was about 3.35 million, of which 2.87 million – home users.

The top ten providers of “fast” Internet in Ukraine include:

Company/Network The subscriber base, thousand
“Ukrtelekom” 1 048
“Volya” 420,5
“Kyivstar”, including URS, and “Golden Telecom” 226,2
“Vega” 122
“Triolan” 120
“Tenet” 63,2
“Freenet” 52,3
“Airbites” 51
“DataGroup” 43,8
“IPNet” 36,2
“Fregat” 35,1

According to “iKS Consulting”

2010 prices sagged

“Thanks,” including small local area networks and small service providers, in 2010, ARPU for the segment of high-speed Internet noticeably “dipped” (about 10% by some estimates). According to the president of “Freedom” by Sergey Boyko, in II quarter according to the “iKS Consulting” in the market average, the figure was around 60 USD. per month, and now it is 52-53 UAH. “Revenue per subscriber decreased by UAH 7. But it’s more than 10% fall in little more than a quarter,” – reported previously president of “Freedom.”

As explained by S. Boyko, on the one hand, Internet access – a growing market, with another – a highly competitive and this competition is often a manifestation of his dumping strategy. Their use of the company, which first entered the market domestic Internet, or vice versa – with him gone. “Dumping starts a chain reaction: the other competitors are looking at the most advantageous from the viewpoint of the customer at the price of the offer and try to do everything possible to find all the resources to meet him. And decreases the average level of market supply. In August and September we saw the most dangerous trend: in the III quarter of a quotation for the service, Internet access is already approaching a negative return, “- said the head of” Freedom. ”

2011: Next nowhere

The next year, according to some experts, the precipitous drop in prices will stop, because “there’s nowhere further.” “In 2011, prices for broadband Internet access for home users have to fall will not be for a maximum of 5-10%, because no economic sense in that no longer exists, and the financial strength of most of the ISP on this is not enough” – the director Business Development Telecom Group “Vega” Konstantin Kolesov.

According to him, in areas of high competition, more technically and financially prepared providers will try to give more services for the same money (higher speed, IPTV, other paid services), and at least prepared to lose share and will try to sell his business.
In addition, both predict providers, prices may even rise, as there is currently on the market is composed of broadband is not very favorable situation for growth: there is potential to further increase penetration, but no data is economically attractive for new investors to investprivlekatelnost, in particular, affects low ARPU.

The Russian Trust, such as Bruce Willis

“We needed a well-known person with a memorable appearance and a good sense of humor, which include Russian well,” – says the vice president for communications of the bank Dmitry Chukseev. Prior to this service “Trust” advertised Turchinsky Vladimir, who died suddenly of a heart attack in December last year. Advertising “Trust” – this is the first appearance of Bruce Willis in the Russian advertising market and the second – in Eastern Europe. Before that, he advertised Polish vodka.

New advertising face of the bank “Trust” looking not too long. According Chukseeva were formed two top-sheet – both Russian and foreign stars. In addition to Willis (Perception Index Russians he was the first place) in the top list of foreign stars included Brad Pitt. The Russian won the top list Urgant Ivan, but his perception index lagged behind the index Willis twice.

Agree with Bruce Willis was easy. Chukseev made a few calls. “In the end I went to Peter’s session, which the American agency CAA is responsible for contracts with Bruce,” – he said. On the session of the Russian bankers discussed the use of advertising media (outdoor and Internet advertising throughout the Russian Federation, in the first year of advertising on television will not), time and cost of the contract which were not disclosed.

Proved to be difficult and time consuming negotiations with the lawyers. For example, American lawyers are required to include in the contract the insurance claims of third parties against accidents. In the event that a billboard featuring the stars will fall and cause harm to humans or a machine made in America to sue not only for the installer or the company board, but the man depicted on the billboard. “We had to convince the lawyers that in our country, such claims are not accepted”, – says Chukseev. Contract align almost three weeks.

Chukseev said that the contract is designed for more than a year. Vadim Kormilitsyn, managing partner of the agency “Stars and brands”, evaluates the one-year contract with the star level of Willis in the $ 1.5-2 million if the contract is concluded, for example, for three years, it’s about $ 3-4 million

“A good fashion move. There will be a great response in the press, and in various publications, “- says Kormilitsyn. He is confident that the image of Willis will “Trust” is to draw attention to its products and ensure the growth of the bank on the retail market.

As of December is expected to meet the bank’s shareholders “Trust” with Willis. It will be held in Los Angeles, there will be a new shooting for a new advertising campaign. Online advertising ‘Trust’ is used by the bank redeemed picture. Moreover, complains Chukseev, the final cost of purchased photos from the original 70 times. The price was just raised, as in the photo bank figured out why we are buying photos. Sam Willis coordinated the design with his image and text, and agents of the actor, through diplomatic channels were interested in the activities of the bank “Trust”.

Author: Julia Chaikin

Personal loans

Venture capitalist Craig Jones is waiting for, finally, the IPO market will work and it will be able to cash out their illiquid assets. In the meantime, have to make a liquid. He gave $ 1.2 million, or 20% of its investment portfolio, the loans to his countrymen.

Someone starts a business, someone extends an existing one, someone is looking for a new home. But most Americans are simply mired in debt and looking for a way to repay the loan Visa and MasterCard. “Now hard to find a way to make money, not binding to trade on stock exchanges, had to approach this issue creatively,” – says Jones. He asked the company Lending Club.

Lending Club was founded by Renaud Laplanche, a Frenchman, who worked as a lawyer for the Securities in New York until he opened the firm MatchPoint (search database). Laplanche quickly exhausted the credit limit of your card (18%) to cover costs for the purchase of computers and furniture. When he told friends about it, some of them said that he would gladly lend him money not to such a harsh environment.

Laplanche sold his business and in 2007 opened the Lending Club. He began to offer their services in May 2007, becoming one of the first applications on Facebook. This fact made him an advertising and attracted young borrowers with short credit history. Laplanche then invested in it $ 12 million from business angels and Bank Silicon Valley. During the three years of Lending Club has allowed lenders to take 23 000 18 500 loans. Total loans were $ 179 million.

Currently, Lending Club is an equal handful of creditors, which fill the gap created by stingy banks. Prosper, another such firm that conducts auctions in which lenders compete for borrowers, offering the most favorable interest rates.

Lending Club borrowers breaks in 35 categories based on their credit histories and other data. To qualify, the borrower must be perfect: with an index of FICO (widely used in the U.S. system for assessing the borrower) at least 660 points (on a scale from 300 to 799 points). The debt to income ratio (excluding mortgage debt) must be at least 25%, the borrower should not be delays in payments, bankruptcies and seizures of property for nonpayment of taxes. Lending Club denies approximately 90% of potential borrowers.

Lenders can choose who to give money, and pay only $ 25 in loans, which total $ 1000-25 000. They can also become creditors of the debtors in the baskets of loans of different risk levels. Lending Club charges borrowers a fee, and assigns the difference between the percentage who are creditors, and the higher rate paid by borrowers. The following year, revenues have tripled compared with $ 7 million received in 2010 and, therefore, then there will be profit.

When Gina and Erica Echeke almost completely burned down the house, the insurance entirely left the mortgage lender. The Bank was slow in granting funds for repairs. Local bank offered loans at 13% per annum. Echeke appealed to Lending Club and received $ 10,500 under 8.94%.

As lenders earn on these transactions? It turns out quite well by the standards of the bond market. On the recently released corporate bonds of 5 years (Class B) pay about 7.5% per annum, at a frequency of 3.4% of defaults over the past 90 years. For comparison, the lenders can earn 14.5% per annum for five-year loans at Lending Club, at the level of no return 4.9% over the past three years. Subtract the non-payment and a share of the Lending Club, and the yield of 9.6% per annum before tax, says Laplanche.

Lender David Niekerk, vice president of Amazon.com, did not know how to use his money to borrowers, but participation in this project brings inner satisfaction: “We had to fill the void, because the banks were not going to pull us out of crisis.”

Article author: Victoria Barrett

Portrait of a businessman Graham eyes

Most investors, before writing a check, carefully examine the strengths and weaknesses of the business plans. The focus of the founder of Y Combinator, Paul Graham – the people who stand for ideas. Here are five qualities that he expects the business.

Determination

It turned out to be the most important thing for the founder of a startup. When we opened the Y Combinator, then thought that the most important would mind – there is such a myth in Silicon Valley. But when a person has overcome a certain threshold IQ, the most important is determination: there is a lot of obstacles.

A good example – Bill Clerico and Rich Aberman of WePay. They founded the financial start-up, they will have endless negotiations with the large bureaucratic companies, which seem to be trying to ignore you. But when you drawn to Bill Clerico, will have to do what he asks – it is clear that this guy is not going to retreat.

Flexibility

From the founder does not want that kind of determination, which is heated with the phrase “Believe in the dream.” The startup world is unpredictable, we must be able to change the dream to fly. For me, the best metaphor that describes a combination of determination with flexibility – it is a position player in college football, which is often necessary to change the direction of running, and then turn back to get away from rivals.

The current record belongs to the flexibility, perhaps, Daniel Gross of Greplin. He filed a request with a bad YC project in the field of electronic commerce. We said that we give funding if he will come up with something else. He agreed. Before you set up Greplin, Gross has come a couple of ideas that were rejected.

Imagination

Not so important to be able to solve tasks, as to be able to give birth to great ideas. In the startup world, most good ideas at first seem to be bad – unless advantages are obvious, someone has embodied them. So need a mind that creates ideas with the necessary degrees of madness.

An example of such an idea – Airbnb. We financed, except insane stunt could not believe that there are many people willing to live with other people. We just liked the founders. Hearing that they earn by selling breakfast cereal with images of Obama and McCain on the box, we realized that our people are. It turned out that their idea was insane in the right.

Audacity

Successful founders of startups – are good people, but with a gleam in the eyes of a pirate. They can not be called exemplary. With respect to ethics, they do everything right, but not to the standards of conduct. So I use the word “audacity” and not “evil.” They are a pleasure to break the rules, but not the ones that really matter.

Sam Altman from Loopt – one of the most successful business people supported us, so we asked him what the question is added to the request for funding for Y Combinator, to find more people like him. He advised to ask whether the applicant had to hack something in its favor – in the sense of beating the system and not get into other people’s computers. And this issue has now become one of the key when evaluating bids.

Friendship

Hard to start a startup alone. Most successful companies – two or three of the founders. It is important that they are genuinely sympathetic to each other and they work well together. If the relationship is not as close and you can break them, then it will happen.

Emmett Shear, and Justin Kan of Justin.tv – an example of close friends, who together are capable of much. They are familiar with the second year and actually read each other’s thoughts. I am sure that they have to argue, as all the founders, but I do not feel any tension in their relationship.

Easy money — Killer Startups

Lesson 2. Easy money — killer startup

Most people feel a lack of money the main and almost the only obstacle to success. Is this true? I am sure it is not. Moreover, I believe that the initial investment is easily obtained (grants, subsidies, loans from close friends, etc.) might kill the business.

Understanding the nuances
Lack of funds forces necessary to gain invaluable experience. If you get enough money to pay for all necessary staff, it is unlikely you are going to do the “dirty” work. Well, well, you might say, more time can be spent on “highly skilled” labor in the creation of your dreams. Maybe, but you will feel more difficult to customer needs, the nuances of communication with suppliers, streamline processes, without losing valuable information. During the formation of business partner we drove ourselves to the customers for the goods to the bank, were the drivers and storekeepers and vendors involved in coloring (our business began with a selection of automotive paints), published “bills”, looking for suppliers and so n. Now, as the company’s turnover in the tens of millions of dollars on these issues, of course, handled by experts who are much better than I handle all these functions. But we have an understanding of how and what is happening in the company.

Almost any businessman if he did not because of luck to them in the form of, for example, rich dad or privatization of the assets held similar way. I’m sure my esteemed Arkady Novikov — the best in my opinion, a restaurateur, not only in Russia — would not such if it had not delved into all the nuances and has gone from chef to owner of a large network. I remember very well his first restaurant “Sirena”, in which Arcady has put a lot of energy. In 1993 he went there as an excursion to see the glass floor with fish swimming under it (by the way, he appeared not once, but already earned money). I still meet Arcadia in his restaurants — and now they have it, it seems, only in Moscow for more than two dozen — he tries to satisfy himself as cooked food and service and always asks objective criticism from his friends.

Motivation
If the novice entrepreneur “hungry”, he will ‘bite’ in all the opportunities to work 24 hours a day and work miracles. If, again, you are provided with the first day of normal financing, salary, you’ll want to strain it too big? Most of us do not want to, so is the way this world.

In addition, the lack of money stimulates creativity. If you can not pay all that is needed, willy—nilly start to look for creative ways to solve the problem. But in the end, and the essence of this competitive business — do better at the same cost or with the same quality, but cheaper.

If you got the money (loans, investments), you’ll be more afraid and less risk. When there is nothing to lose, you can afford bold, reckless decisions that may make you a billionaire. And if not, then you will eventually lose nothing but gain additional experience.

One more thing. Lack of money will make before selling a product, because it will give much—needed cash flow. But very often the desire to bring the product to some “ideal” results in loss of benefits over time. In this respect I really like the approach of programmers. They initially aware that upon completion of work on any program it will be a lot of errors. But they do it, brings to market, and only then remove all the bugs. Absolutely ‘raw’ product to market, you probably should not, but wait for “perfection” is also often makes no sense.

Whose trick?
Recently, I often encounter a situation where all efforts are focused on startups seeking investment. This leads to the fact that product development does not have the time and effort. Moreover, these startups trying to “satisfy” the investor, not the client. What does it lead? In the best case — the loss of time, at worst — the focus.

So, in conclusion, there is a very good chance that any money you originally just one will not. Guy Kawasaki says that the chances of getting venture capital is much lower than the probability of being struck by lightning while standing at the bottom of the pool on a sunny day. And then, without receiving the expected investment, you do not start a business. Or maybe your business is not attractive to angels and venture capitalists, but that does not mean that you need to give it up. By the way, Apple, Microsoft, eBay and many others started with bootstrapping (development without external funding).

Advice to those who start completely from scratch
If I even managed to convince anyone that the money at an early stage may be evil, it is still the question remains: how could a company without them? I wrote that started his business with $ 100. Rental managed to negotiate a postponement, equipment and consumables as well. Of course, it was not a Class A office in central Moscow, a modest room in a dilapidated Research Institute on the outskirts, and the equipment was badly b / y. But the work can be. Salary just to pay the first there was nothing, and I had to do everything myself.

Many businesses started from scratch, their starting capital was less than your current salary. Check out Richard Branson, candid story of Oleg Tinkoff (“I like everything”) or a history of Chichvarkin. They were able to start from scratch and really began to superuspeshnymi (sorry, that Eugene is now such a situation, but I hope that his “finest hour” is yet to come).

I will try to formulate a few tips that may be, someone can help:

1. Do it yourself. Believe me, initially, it is possible. I often send business plans are people who have worked for several years in large companies and trying to copy a business model that met there. Often these plans I see something like: “the marketing department — 5 people, planning and finance department — 3 persons, the purchasing department — 2 persons,” etc. And despite the fact that it is a very small project. It does not happen. Rather, it happens in big companies that decide to open a new direction and allocate all necessary resources. But this is not business, that’s another story.

2. Of course, sometimes without specialized expertise is necessary. Find the young enthusiasts who do not have a name, but full of energy. Do you have a chance to convince them to take part in the project for future share. And if you can not inspire anyone your idea, if you can inspire her to your customers? How to find them? Walk for various startaperskie event. For example, Harvest — make it superaktivnye, positive and competent guys. I’ve seen already a lot of projects that came to Harvest with a “bare” idea, for two days they found experts convinced them in the bright prospects and are now successfully developing. By the way, and the first orders, and some money first found there.

3. Try to negotiate a postponement of payment with all of your suppliers. Believe me, it is possible. It is difficult, but possible.

4. Think about how to make money on the stage where your product is not yet ready, such as offer consulting, training, something else.

5. Do not rent office ahead of time — you can use the house, garage, cafe, business incubators.

6. Do not buy anything that can be rented. For the profit and loss account is likely to be worse, but the initial cash flow path is much more important profit.

7. Use any of the alternatives — a lot can change, to take, to share. I know a young team that is now doing an internet project for a relatively large company “for free” — in exchange for the ability to use office computers and Internet access to their own startup.

8. Break your plans for Napoleon’s conquest of the market in small steps, start small. The other day talked with Eugene Demin (toothpaste, “Splat”), so he told how, unable to get to the big chains, who personally went around a small pharmacy, and where able to agree, he got up from the shelves with their pastas and attract customers . After a while it became much easier to talk to the larger players.

9. Put intangible goals. It works. If you do everything in order to improve the lives of your customers, then money will appear. I can not prove it, but trust me — it works.

Lack of money — it’s an excuse. Just get busy! And believe in yourself!

Author — head of the “Business Incubator ANE” CEO “Automotive systems».

Yanukovych has changed the tax service

President Viktor Yanukovych dismissed from his post as head of the State Tax Papaika Alexander, instead of the post came Vitaliy Zakharchenko.

All the relevant decrees published on the official site of the head of state.

President Yanukovych also appointed first deputy chairman of the State Tax Administration, which was formerly Zakharchenko, head of the tax police Andrei Golovach.

MMK Ilyich falls out of the portfolio Akhmetov?

Property rights are the second largest steelworks in Mariupol Ukraine. Lenin, which is the holding company of Rinat Akhmetov “Metinvest” trying to challenge.

As it became known, the four physical persons with the court trying to challenge the registration of two plants of JSC “Ilyich-steel” and JSC “Ilyich Iron and Steel Works named. Ilyich. ”

Economic Court of Donetsk rejected the claim. However, the decision may be challenged by the economic court in Donetsk Appeals Commercial Court and the Supreme Economic Court.

If the plaintiffs (in some mysterious manner) is able to prove the illegality of the registration of OAO “MMK Ilyich” and “Ilyich-steel”, this will lead to the recognition of illegal conduct additional shares mill, after which the holding company was able to concentrate in a 75% stake.

Individuals who have applied to the economic court, insisting that the registration of the two plants was in violation of several laws, namely, that the company shares were reissued to lease plant boiler. Lenin, the founder, by the way, which was a labor collective, on the same AO. Also, in their opinion, was illegally established company manages assets “Ilyich-steel.”

Plant Guide does not comment on the situation with litigation. Vladimir Boyko, chairman of the boiler. Illich disown and said that he knew nothing about it is not known. Also, the head of Mariupol. Lenin did not know about a possible connection with plaintiffs’ raiders.

Cost of Ukrainian steel grew by 40%, domestic demand fell by 45%

In 2010, the cost of steel production in Ukraine has increased in comparison with 2009 by 40% or $ 137 / t. This is stated in the materials of the SE “Ukrpromvneshekspertiza.”

In particular, this year prices on the domestic market for iron ore was 96% for coking coal – by 77% for scrap – 55%.

In addition, the economic crisis in the domestic consumption of steel has fallen by almost Ukraine 45%, or 5 million tons to 6.2 million tons

At the same time significantly increased the share of imports of steel products to meet the domestic demand, which increased from 10% in 2004-05. up to 25% in 2010

Coca Cola — The success story of the legendary brand

Coca-Cola is currently the world’s most famous soft drink. If you pour all of today was created for more than 100 years, Coca-Cola’u the bottles and distribute it to all the inhabitants of our planet, each person will get about 800 bottles. Since its founding in the nineteenth century, Coca-Cola firm ranked first in the beverage market class Cola. Many times such giants like Pepsi and Sprite, tried to overthrow the father drinks cola, but they do so and failed. Today is not the best of times for the brand. Today’s youth preference for preservative-free drinks such as iced tea (Nestea owned by the same company Coca-Cola) and juices. Because of this the old-timers such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi may soon change the original formula of their drinks. The latter, for example, has introduced a completely natural drink Pepsi Raw, devoid of all sorts of colors. For many old-timers is bad news. Especially fans of the drink concerned about how it will affect the taste of the drink. After all, the original cola traces its history back to the last century. But as you know “everything has a beginning – has an end …”

A history began Coca-Cola back in 1886. In the U.S. city of Atlanta (Ga.) retired officer who worked at the time a pharmacist John Stith Pemberton invented a unique formula of the drink Coca-Cola. His famous name and logo must drink Pemberton accountant Frank Robinson, who mastered the art of fine calligraphy. Even now the name of the drink exactly as written, as in those years, it depicts Robinson.

Its name Coca-Cola certainly got no chance. It went from the ingredients used in the manufacture of beverage: coca leaves (of which incidentally make cocaine), and nuts with a tropical tree called cola. However, Pemberton was not going to make the drink popular. He patented it as a remedy for nervous disorders, roughly speaking, Coca-Cola on it’s idea is a drug for depression. The drink began to spread through a network of pharmacies, Jacob. Soon Pemberton claimed that Coca-Cola is also an excellent remedy for impotence, and is able to fight off addiction to morphine. Most likely, this was due to the fact that the drink contained cocaine itself. But it was normal for that time. Then cocaine was not prohibited, and is used in many drinks, and Sherlock Holmes used cocaine at all in the “minutes of inactivity.”

At the beginning of its existence, drink Coca-Cola did not sell very well. The first year of its launch, and did become unprofitable. In the second case leveled off, and already a widow Pemberton sold the rights to Coca-Cola’u businessman Asa Candler Grizz (who had arrived in the United States from Ireland), who in 1888 founded The Coca-Cola Company.

This popularity came to drink in 1902. In this year the company’s turnover reached 120 thousand dollars, and Coca-Cola itself has become the most famous soft drink in the U.S.. In addition, at the beginning of the century society has realized how dangerous cocaine is. The media are just attacking the company Coca-Cola, a drink that contained the drug. I had to take emergency measures. In 1903, for the production of the drink began to be used entirely squeezed out of coca leaves, which are no longer contained a known drug.

The popularity of Coca-Cola started to grow with each passing day. In many ways, this contributed to a good advertising campaign, started in the late 19th century, Candler. It was held under the slogan “Drink Coca-Cola, a beautiful and refreshing.” All the while, drink Coca-Cola was sold mainly in the bottling. No one has even thought of that sales will exceed sales of bottles of cola on tap. In 1902, now has a competitor, leading to the Coca-Cola continuous war – the company PEPSI. But while it began to conquer America, Coca-Cola has already been exported to countries such as Cuba and Panama. It was still only 1906.

Significant for the company began in 1915 when the designer of the Indiana Terri from created a new bottle for a drink of 6.5 ounces. Subsequently sold more than 6 billion bottles of drink Coca-Cola. At the same time the company starts to seriously fight against fakes. For 10 years, will close by such companies as «Candy Cola», «Kos Nola», «Cold Cola», «Cay-Ola» and «Fig Cola». The company also receives a patent for his famous bottle. She becomes a symbol of the drink.

A bottle of Coca-Cola sample 1910

A bottle of Coca-Cola sample 1910

In 1919, Candler sold by Coca-Cola banker Ernest Woodruff of Atlanta. The deal amounted to $ 25 million (at the time the state is comparable to a few billion today). One year later, the drink will come to Europe. The first country to “Old World”, which tries to become Coca-Cola France. 1923 will be a turning point for the company. To her son will come the leadership of Ernest Robert Vudrofa. Robert Vudrof become a legendary figure in the history of the company. He will stand at the helm of the next 60 years! This is especially phenomenal, considering the fact that he became the head in 33 years. Immediately after the arrival of Robert in the company appeared uniform standards for creating, filling, and even placing drinks on the shelves. Also there was a cardboard box, which could be as soon as 6 bottles.

In 1927, drink Coca-Cola was advertised on the radio. A year later, Coca-Cola has sponsored the American team at the Olympic Games in Holland. During the Olympics, went to hockey, soccer, tennis and other sports. In 1931 came the legendary Santa Claus, who to this day used in advertising Coca-Cola. A little later, the company delivered the first Pepsi serious blow to Coca-Cola, releasing his drink in bottles larger capacity for the same price at which you could buy a Coke. Coca-Cola without hesitation sued, trying to sue Pepsi part of the name, which used the word Cola. As a result, the parties came to a peace agreement. But it was only the beginning of the next war count, which has no end, and to this day.

During World War II, Coca-Cola began selling the drink to all the military for 5 cents. It was a personal order of Robert Vudrofa. By the end of the war, Coca-Cola already sold in 44 countries. It was interesting that the military did not drink sold in bottles, but the banks for their own convenience. Mass consumer can try a Coke in a bank until 1955.

In 1958, Coca-Cola launches drink Fanta, and three years later, presents a Sprite. They are both significantly different from the original Coke, and therefore able to expand the company’s influence on the soft drinks market. Unfortunately, in the USSR, Coca-Cola never really sold. This was due to the fact that Khrushchev chose her company Pepsi. Cola will appear in Russia (more in the USSR) in 1988 alone for a long time and will seriously give Pepsi in sales volume.

In 1982, Coca-Cola launches Diet Coke Diet Coke. In the short term, this product was a huge success, but in the long term is the linear expansion has not led the company to no good. Roughly the same can be said of most other drinks Coke, among which the «Classic Coke», «New Coke», «Cherry Coke», «Diet Coke», «Tab», «Caffeine-Free New Coke», «Caffeine-Free Diet Coke »and« Caffeine-Free Tab ». The greatest success achieved Tab, not identified with the usual Coca-Cola.

During the war, Pepsi Cola and the latter has occasionally caused problems. The first time it happened, when Pepsi launched its legendary campaign of “new generation chooses Pepsi». Power of the campaign was the fact that in all times, children try to be different from the parents in any way oppose myself to them. Given the fact that most of the time parents drank Coca-Cola’u the advertisement is perfectly worked for Pepsi. The second point was the refusal of Coca-Cola on it, perhaps the best advertising campaign, a slogan which was “the real thing.” Nevertheless, despite these shortcomings in its history, Pepsi never once failed to even overtake the market share from Coca-Cola. That, however, does not prevent the company prosper.

In Russia, where according to 1991 sales of Pepsi in the 10 times the sales of Coca-Cola has changed only in 1998. This year, drink Coca-Cola was sold as early as three times more than Pepsi. Generally, the popularity of the first in our country most likely due to a very good Christmas advertising campaign, which turned out to be like the majority of Russians (meaning the campaign “Festival comes to us”). And other videos drink, such as “Finding Neverland” and “Let everything be Coca-Cola” (about the love of young people) are our most popular (and not just ours) than expensive commercials Pepsi with the stars of world football, headed by with David Beckham. The reason is that in the ads last look at the Beckham’s for more than a drink.

Bank of Coca-Cola sample 1995

Bank of Coca-Cola sample 1995

Now the three most popular drinks Coca-Cola owns 80% of the market of drinks cola (it: Coca-Cola, Fanta, Sprite). Also, thanks to the increasing popularity of drinks with no dyes, Coca-Cola Company has been producing a series of juices Minute Maid, as well as in partnership with Nestle manufactures iced tea Nestea. Here it should be noted that Pepsi c Lipton is in a better position. At the end of the XX century, Coca-Cola acquired the rights to drink from Schweppes Cadbury. This drink is particularly popular in Europe.

Often, in the marketing literature you read, you can not be everything to everybody. Indeed not. However, there is one exception. This company Coca-Cola, has existed for over 100 years. Today, Coca-Cola sells its beverages in more than 200 countries. In addition, Coca-Cola is today the most recognizable brand. Its recognition is 98 percent. This means that almost every person on the planet knows what Coca-Cola. Also worth noting is that the company Coca-Cola Company today is the best in the world. Every day in the world sells more than 1 billion bottles of drinks from this company. What are the prospects, you ask? All will be Coke, the brand has long been quietly transformed, but the values ​​it carries for over 100 years, remain the same.

Майкл Блумберг – первый мэр-миллиардер

В мире не так много политиков, которые могут похвастаться еще и статусом долларового миллиардера. Вспоминая Европу, на ум сразу же приходит Сильвио Берлускони. Но в Америке есть свой Берлускони, которого зовут Майкл Блумберг. Настоящий финансовый Могол и очень успешный мэр, любимый всеми нью-йоркцами. Первое подтверждает тот факт, что Блумберг является одним из самых богатых американцев в списке Forbes. А про успешность Блумберга, как политика говорит то, что городской законодательный совет Нью-Йорка разрешил ему баллотироваться на пост мэра третий раз подряд.

Работа на «дядю» как способ заработать стартовый капитал

Майкл Блумберг родился 14 февраля 1942 года в Бостоне. Его родители никогда не отличались серьезным достатком – отец работал бухгалтером, а мать была секретаршей. Именно поэтому Майклу приходилось подрабатывать на автозаправке, чтобы продолжать учебу в Университете Джонса Хопкинса. В 1964 году Университет был закончен, а Майкл стал бакалавром в сфере электроинженерии. Это было начало. Уже через два года Блумберг стал выпускником Гарварда. Он получил MBA, став магистром делового администрирования. Майкл получил блестящее образование, совместившее в себе, как техническую, так и деловую часть.

Получив MBA, Блумберг устраивается в компанию Salomon Brothers, которая успешно работает в сфере финансовый услуг. Здесь Майклу удалось достаточно быстро перенять успех и сделать карьеру. В компании он был настолько успешен, что собственникам ничего не оставалось как предложить молодому Майклу стать полноправным партнером компании (получив за это ее акции), а также должность в виде руководителя по информационным системам. Это было сделано не просто так. По своему образованию Майкл отлично подходил на эту должность. По той простой причине, что он был технарем. Достаточно быстро подразделение Блумберга начало работать на полную мощность, но все же долго пожинать лавры своего успеха Майклу было не суждено.

Все дело в том, что Salomon Brothers провела слияние с компанией Phibro, занимавшейся в то время торговлей нефтью, металлом и различной сельскохозяйственной продукцией. А любое слияние, как известно, сопряжено с сокращением штата. К сожалению, Блумберг как раз и попал под такое сокращение (правда, по другой точке зрения он был слишком активен и просто не устроил руководство новой компании).

Майкл потерял должность, но не акции. В итоге у него родилась идея создать собственную компанию. К счастью, стартовый капитал для этого был. Нужно было только продать акции своего бывшего работодателя, которые вылились в итоге несколько миллионов долларов.

Начало карьеры финансиста-бизнесмена

Идея Блумберга была в том, чтобы оказывать различным компаниям информационные услуги, связанные с финансами. Для этого Майкл учредил компанию и пригласил трех бывших работников Salomon Brothers, также подвергшихся увольнению. Тогда на рынке явным лидером в этой области было агентство Reuters. Но у Блумберга была возможность переплюнуть детище Юлиуса Рейтера. Назревала эпоха повсеместной компьютеризации и нужно было просто использовать революцию с максимальной пользой для себя (при этом стоит отметить, что Reuters на тот момент была солидной компанией, которая хоть и не использовала всех новейших технологий того времени, но и не была сильно отставала от них, иначе бы это агентство не процветало сегодня).

Терминал Innovative Market Systems

Терминал Innovative Market Systems

Итак, в 1981 году на свет появилась компания Innovative Market Systems, которая в будущем будет переименована в Bloomberg LP. Стартовый капитал компании составлял 10 миллионов долларов. Идея была в том, чтобы предоставлять различную деловую информацию компаниям, включая финансовую: котировки, анализ рынков, деловые новости и прочее. Но делать это не так как другие компании в то время – хаотично, а структурировано по группам, по тематикам, уделяя внимание тренду.

Первым клиентом компании Майкла Блумберга стал известный инвестиционный банк Merrill Lynch. При этом история о том, как Блумберг уговорил Merrill Lynch стать его клиентом является настоящей бизнес-легендой. Майкл лично посетил офис инвестиционного банка, представив там бизнес-стратегию своей компании. Он ярко презентовал свой продукт, после чего предложил  пробную версию, чтобы в Merrill Lynch оценили потенциал детища Innovative Market Systems. Именно так первый информационный терминал Блумберга оказался в этом банке. Топ-менеджерам Merrill Lynch так понравилось это устройство, практически моментально собирающее информацию с фондового рынка, что банк решил заказать сразу 20 таких терминалов, при том что стоимость одного такого терминала на тот момент была достаточно существенной (прим. ред. по нынешним меркам – около 4000$).

Так у Майкла Блумберга появился первый клиент и первый инвестор. Учредителей Merrill Lynch настолько привлекает продукт Блумберга, что они решают инвестировать в компанию Innovative Market Systems 30 миллионов долларов, и за это получают долю в 20%. Эти деньги окажутся как нельзя кстати для компании, так как позволят ускорить развитие.

Наверное, стоит отметить, о каких терминалах идет речь. Терминал – это программа, с помощью которой осуществляется покупка/продажа акций прямо через интернет. На сегодняшний день терминалы Bloomberg Professional присутствуют практически во всех финансовых компаниях, которым требуются подобные устройства. Это в какой-то мере корпоративный стандарт, полоьно Microsoft Windows на рынке операционных систем. При этом система Bloomberg Professional показала со временем свою надежность и функциональность, тем самым подтвердив высочайшее качество продукта. Конечно, распространение деловой информации невозможно без серьезного штата журналистов. Для решения этой проблемы Блумберг заключил договор с компанией Dow Jones, согласно которому его компания могла использовать в своей сети материалы из журнала The Wall Street Journal, который пренадлежал компании Dow Jones. Союз с Dow Jones продолжался до 1990 года, когда последняя неожиданно для всех разорвала контракт. О причине никто не знает до сих пор. Как бы то ни было, но Блумбергу пришлось организовывать свой редакторский состав, который способный также качественно писать.

С этой задачей Майкл справился, обратив внимание на молодежь. Это был достаточно неожиданный ход. Блумберг не стал искать опытных и дорогостоящих специалистов, а нанимал талантливых выпускников. Уже скоро у Bloomberg LP появился огромный штат сотрудников, которые сегодня работают по всему миру, снабжая свою сеть всей необходимой информацией.

Слева-направо: Арнольд Шварцнеггер, Антонио Вилларайгоса, Майкл Блумберг

Слева-направо: Арнольд Шварцнеггер, Антонио Вилларайгоса, Майкл Блумберг

Организация такого штата потребовала внедрения новых сервисов. И они не заставили себя долго ждать. Блумберг приобрел радиостанцию, открыл свой телевизионный канал по теме финансов и веб-сайт, который сегодня является центром мировой финансовой аналитики.

Компания Bloomberg LP постепенно занимала все более важное место на рынке финансовой аналитики. Сегодня она имеет сильные позиции сразу же в нескольких направлениях. Во-первых, компания Майкла Блумберга обладает подразделением Bloomberg Professional, поставляющим финансовым компаниям свои дорогостоящие терминалы (за аренду такого устройства на один месяц придется отдать 1,5 тысячи долларов).  Во-вторых, компания обладает подразделением Bloomberg Television, представляющим собой крупную телевизионную сеть, посвященную финансам. Компания обладает своим собственным издательством, занимающимся на данный момент такими проектами, как Bloomberg Press, Bloomberg Persona Finance и Bloomberg Markets. Есть в империи нынешнего мэра Нью-Йорка и свое собственное радио, и даже полноценное информационное агентство. И, конечно, не забыта и сеть интернет, где властвует ресурс bloomberg.com. Сегодня Bloomberg LP является одним из ведущих поставщиков финансовых новостей по всему миру. В компании работает 9,5 тысяч человек, занятых в 130 городах.

В общем, можно с уверенностью сказать, что большой бизнес у Блумберга удался. Только вот на данный момент Майкл уделяет ему все меньше времени. А все дело в том, что последние 8 лет его основной деятельностью является руководство одним из самых крупных городов в мире – Нью-Йорком, мэром которого он является.

Активное внимание Майкл уделяет и благотворительности. За последние несколько десятилетий он был членом многочисленных некоммерческих организаций, и даже занимали пост председателя правления в своем родном Университете Джонса Хопкинса.

До наступления кризиса Майкл Блумберг занимал 8-место в списке самых богатых американцев по версии журнала Forbes, обладая состоянием в 20 миллиардов долларов. Кризис, конечно, отразился на Блумберге, но не так сильно, как на остальных предпринимателях. По данным все того же Forbes мэр Нью-Йорка потерял 4 миллиарда долларов, но сохранил за собой 8-место в рейтинге самых обеспеченных американцев.

Политика

Улицы Нью-Йорка

Улицы Нью-Йорка

В 2001 году Майкл Блумберг был избран мэром Нью-Йорка. Во многом ему удалось занять этот пост по двум причинам: он обладала солидными финансовыми средствами, позволившими ему провести масштабную рекламную кампанию (в свою избирательную кампанию Майкл Блумберг лично вложил 41 миллион долларов), вторым важным моментом стало то, что Блумберга поддержал предыдущий мэр Нью-Йорка Рудольф Джулиани, слово которого особенно много значило после терактов 11 сентября.

Надо сказать, что Блумберг сразу же принялся активно работать на посту мэра и первые его указы были, мягко говоря, не самыми популярными. Так, он запретил уличную торговлю, курение в общественных местах (барах и кафе), снизил расходы администрации и одновременно повысил налоги. Казалось, что второго срока ему не видать, но экономика города начала расти, преступность снизилась на 20%, а ситуация в школьном образовании начала улучшаться. В общем, Блумберг показал, что является отличным мэром в следствии чего был выбран на второй срок.

За все время Майкл добился того, что сумел сбалансировать городской бюджет и серьезно снизить уровень безработицы. Результаты были на лицо. А потому нет ничего удивительного в том, что городской законодательный совет Нью-Йорка разрешил Блумбергу баллотироваться на пост мэра третий раз подряд.