Предприниматель | Информационно-аналитический журнал - Part 40

Yevgeny Chichvarkin: Start Your Business

Suppose you are a representative of the background type of active people who want to become successful and rich by doing business. You are not fascinated by the gray carpet mouse career in state-owned corporation or a werewolf in uniform. Commendable. Although it is not fashionable.

Evgeny Chichvarkin forced in 2008 to whip up selling the company “Euroset” and go to London. As he states in his administration pressured “to” the Interior Ministry. The criminal case instituted by him in 2009, was closed, but he did not rush back to Russia.

Questions at the start

Most likely, you are better than others know what you want to do. If you are looking for a niche, you have to sit quietly in front of a mirror and looking into his eyes and honestly answer a few questions.

  1. Will you then not have to feel ashamed and hide there from the children and grandchildren, not only from the “mom and dad,” what did you do?
  2. What is the size of the market in your country and what it is in the world?
  3. When direction became a separate industry, and when it would end?
  4. Who are your competitors? How they are evil? How strong? How ‘podmentovannye »?
  5. What factor control by the government and how it has changed since 2000?
  6. how much investment money to make it work?
  7. How long will it to come to an honest man zero, let alone make a profit?
  8. Where Achilles’ heel of this business?
  9. How hurt business, if Russia attacked Georgia?
  10. If srastetsya if you can buy a villa on Cap Ferrat, and fly back to the jet, packed merry friends?

If all the answers uncompromising love, let’s go further.


The idea you already have, and certainly ingenious, but no money. Try not to borrow from private individuals, and go to the bank. At the time of application will be better if you have already invested in a business that you had. If you can demonstrate to the final sample of the goods or services — it’s all good. If the business operates on the microscale and is profitable, the bank will be happy to scaling.

Take the list of top 100 banks and go themselves, “the street” to everyone, do not listen to anybody’s advice. Try to get to the bank as high as possible in the hierarchy. Do not behave like a guilty child or Judas Golovlyov. You are a merchant, it sounds good. Whatever you said the bank employee, know that the bank wants to give you money, just afraid. Gosbankir will roll back the money over, the normal banker wants to pledge. But as the collateral, assuming no banker can take a chance.

That he believed you, you should not hesitate to demonstrate their passion for the beloved work and professionalism. Try to keep the banker asked as many questions and answer them in detail — if he knows you as a childhood friend, he may have you believe. If you are interesting and even unusual it can show you his boss and even the chief head just out of curiosity. And each succeeding chief more authority in making decisions on loans. Small banks can get to the chairman of the board and shareholders of the real. It does not matter if you tell your story over a hundred banks and no one will give you money. But if history is fair, the 187th bank account you believe, and the money will be.


The idea is. Money is. No partner. Eastern Slavs were historically commercial affairs without partners. Another decree of Peter I tried to combine the merchants association in the Western manner. But this really our mentality: we live close, baryzhim separately . So if you can do without a partner, go around without a partner.

Partner may be in the business, and may be financial. The first is to bring in business is what you can not make, or he does not want. I will not reveal the secret when I say that the foundation of a business partnership should be one hundred percent trust. Whoever takes a partner cops, and other efesbeshnikov werewolves in the first place, not a businessman, and second, risk being left without a business, money and freedom, if a werewolf would nelenivym and decides that everything will make itself, in- Third, most likely, is complicit in corruption.

If the financial partner, that is, give money in exchange for a share, in the case will not climb, the lawyers, that person you hire should be a level or two ahead of the anticipated level of business and be no worse than lawyers a financial partner. Fifth-year student faculty of law does not work, moonlighting as a lawyer at an inopportune time high.

If a business is afoot more than a small, not too lazy to sign a contract in English law, because courts in Russia — the props. Contract with a financial partner — it’s a wedding, the bride — you. That you will wash, clean, pleasing and give birth. We must be sensitive to this report. So, before the wedding, it is worth examining the history of previous marriages, and most importantly — divorce. If “Yandex” 6350 gives references to a partner, read everything. That is, in general, everything, even if you think that information is repeated. Of particular interest are the early references — they show character. If a lot of English, and you do not understand, learn to read the goat’s translation. Booked — is forearmed.


The word “employees” laid the whole point, to which we must choose a team. Co — Labor. In this word there is no trace of the thieves, idlers or loafers, which are teeming with crawling, both public and private companies. Like-minded people who are rushing out of your ideas from the many millions of people could be found. The person who believes in success, ready to run at full transaction with a zero minimum bid. From the people who folded his hands and looking for stability, house, try to get rid of — it rocks in your backpack.

Do not neglect the principle of Pareto. 80% of the store premises to be occupied in trade. 80% of people have to bring the company money. 80% of all investments should go exactly in the product or service, rather than protection, accounting and other dregs. eight with Bipod and two with a spoon — the law of the living business.

Unique proposal

Who is your customer? Describe it yourself, draw a portrait. Just do not imagine people who are not found in nature.

Your product or service must be unique. “Bulletin usual wholesale from a warehouse in Moscow,” to feed your family, but do not make you rich. It was a unique board, or the price must be the lowest, or service is the best, or fastest delivery, and better — the aggregate of all these factors.

The uniqueness and originality — an integral part of success. While the chip will copy competitors, you’ll need to strengthen this or the next.


Professionally made speaker brand helps the business, stupid — way. But if he has a backbone — that is still what it is.

If there is no money on branding, simply write the name in black on white. There will be money — make a full brand, rather than rebranding.

If the product or service is not unique, money on advertising — heating of the atmosphere. (In general, direct advertising and big budgets — from the leadership of a combination of laziness, inflexibility, and the part of advertisers — an attempt to cash in on the development of this budget).

If the product or service is unique, sooner or later, word of mouth will do the trick. For this to be sooner rather than later, and use the options PR, virusnikov, flash mob, and other highly intelligent and low-cost techniques.

Learn to communicate with journalists. Use Twitter, LiveJournal, Facebook to promote their company. Climb to the forums, leave comments. Amuse people. Be transparent. you think the reporters — crocodiles, yes, it happens that the crocodiles. But the source of information — you string bag with the fish in your hands. You can not feed them, feed, feed later on, to feed in exchange for simple requirements, to feed the greenest and most small ones, or vice versa, and most pupyrchatyh large. As the dialogue you’ll find that plush crocodile, and hid inside a person, almost the same as you. Just had another profession — a reporter.


Every business has a specific character. For example, if it’s retail, it is almost the most important — it’s geography. If Internet delivery, the trust and service. If an advertising agency — resourcefulness. We must understand that your business is a key indicator of the juice of the gamma-berries, helping to jump above all.

Intuition — instinctive analysis, and it should be trusted. If intuition fails you do not need to read these articles and, in the words of Richard Branson: “To hell with it! Beris and do it! ”


Business Secrets: Yevgeny Chichvarkin

The founder of online stores
mobile “Euroset” Chichvarkin in the “business secrets with Oleg Tinkoff”.

Internet Doctor

The American doctor, Robert Novichev there are only two clients, this is Ann Donato and her husband Frank, who recorded an appointment by phone. Robert Novichev 32 years leading practitioner in the area Westchester, New York. The last two years, he urged his clients to contact him with simple questions exclusively via the Internet. And this is only a tenth of the work to improve the effectiveness of personal work.

American doctors are specialists in general practice are often forced to co-ordinate the work of a whole group of assistants, but this job does not pay them money. Such a doctor in the United States earns about $ 190,000 a year – three times less than the doctors specialists in a particular practice.

Instead of taking more patients and earn more income, as do others of his colleagues, Robert Novichev decided to cut costs. To help him come to the Internet. He persuaded his daughter to scan thousands of medical records, X-rays and other data, it took six weeks, and then arranged to access this information through the Internet, it now has access to these documents, wherever he is, at home, in his office. Synchronization and backup hosted by Internet service Dropbox and Carbonite. Another service automates the receipt of payments from insurance companies.

The breakthrough came in 2008 when Robert Novichev with his son spent $ 20,000 to create a site that allows patients to directly from the site, and order medications and to learn the test results. Today Novichev records of 30-50 calls a day, three times less than it was before innovations, 70% of the patients refer to him via the Internet. In 1999, wages paid Novichev three employees who worked on accounts, products ordered and received calls, it is now easy to cope with it all myself.

Ten years ago, Novichev were 1,600 patients and cost-effectiveness was about 55%. Today, the services of an experienced therapist uses only 1,200 patients, but due to profitability has grown to 85%, net income Novichev remained unchanged.

It is true that to achieve a result, he had to spend a lot of time, consider, for re-education habits of patients.

«In some patients had to sit down together and explain what a web browser”, – says Robert Novichev.

Septuagenarian patient, Neil Hirsch, admitted: “look pretty strange when it simultaneously measures the pressure of me, and talking to another patient in a wireless headset.”

But in general, patients are happy. Perhaps because I became interested in his work Novichev in new ways.

Novichev shared: «When I upgraded my practice, I was as shocked as the moment when for the first time in front of me opened the door to your own doctor’s office».

Business Secrets: Kirill Androsov

Managing partner of Altera Capital Kirill Androsov in the “business secrets with Oleg Tinkoff.”

“The Ukrainian market” and PFTS can unite

Recently the board of directors of the Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange (MICEX), which had previously acquired a controlling stake in its Russian rival, RTS, held merger MICEX and RTS. Chairman of the Board of Directors of the RTS, Jacques Der Megreditchian said it was likely to result merger of two Ukrainian “daughters” – the Ukrainian PFTS stock exchange and.

When making a purchase it was announced that shareholders of PTC rated the company at $ 1,15-1,2 billion Thus for the purchase of 50% of the MICEX paid $ 600 million in the remaining 50% are a number of companies – from the “Troika Dialog” and “KIT Finance” by 10%, Alfa-Bank and “Aton” have at 9.8%, and the “Deutsche Securities” 9%, other shares are held by individuals.

As you know owns a controlling stake MICEX stock exchange PFTS, and RTS owns approximately 40% of the Ukrainian Stock Exchange.

“Ukraine – a large and promising country. Any state of this magnitude deserves to own the financial market “, – explains Jacques Der Megreditchian.

Restaurant Business out of the peak

Restaurant market is emerging from crisis. However, the increase in the number of visitors leveled their newly acquired habits for a period of crisis: they are legible and meticulously paying attention to prices. 2011 is unlikely to be a renaissance for the restaurant market, but grounds for optimism — there is.

Last year, the hoped-Ukrainian restaurateurs, not met their expectations. The result is only 10% higher than the full crisis of 2009, while the average check, by adding their traditional inflation 20%, slightly affected the level of profitability in the industry. Deceived in their hopes in the past year, the market very carefully to make predictions for the current season. However, towards the middle of the year began to show signs of optimism. “Of course, you can not make up for the year which lasted two and a half years of decline. But at least we can say that the market out of a steep dive, — said Olga Nasonova, director of “Restaurant Consulting”. — I think that the number of restaurants per year could increase by 15%.”

According to Dmitry Pogrebitsky, general director of “FM Group” (“Coffee Time”, “fruity kartoplya”, “Wood”), for two and a half years of crisis, most changed by the user — the visitors have become more critical, critical and selective when choosing schools. “I would say that the market is stagnating easy: none of the players does not make any sudden movements. Network is added by 1-3 restaurants, but in general it does not affect the market and not comparable to the growth that was three years ago “- he says. Nevertheless, for the next year expert predicts moderate growth: “I think next year we will see growth, but it will be expressed in 10-15%.”

growth at the expense of the fall

Surprisingly, substantial support for the development of the restaurant market is that nearly destroyed the capital’s property market — the decline in rental rates. Reduced rental rates in times of commercial real estate and cost twice as restaurateurs allowed to significantly reduce costs of this article: the current level of rental rates, most respondents ‘i’ restaurateurs called “if not yet adequate, then at least acceptable.” The total decrease in property values ??has allowed to redeem the premises in the property, eliminating dependence on tenants. “The law is registered in favor of the owners, and they enjoyed it: could unilaterally raise rents, regardless of how much time to invest in a restaurant-room. Often, it ended in failure, such as coffee, “Baboon” rates were raised, and they were forced to shut down “- says one of the market participants.

In addition, restaurateurs are stating and increase the supply of premises — this is due to the massive closing of businesses on sale of footwear, cosmetics, clothing, on whose sales drastically affected the crisis. “In addition, number of rooms increased by the fact that he was banned gambling, — says Dmitry Pogrebitsky .- Now we choose a more attractive place, with beautiful facades. In general, yes, we can state that the property market has become more loyal. ”
Who rules the ball

Before the crisis, the restaurant market the most attractive segments were considered “elite” and “average plus.” Restaurants that massively open now — it’s small democratic institution format. “As a rule, these are small establishments 100-400 square meters, investment is around 5-6 thousand UAH. a square meter “, — says Olga Nasonova. As a rule, they are opened in major cities, while in the care of restaurateurs can not yet boast. A striking example is the Lions, which itself has no shortage of institutions, but the market remains malonasyschennym Lviv region.

Which leads straight year Japanese cuisine. This segment of the stagnant market for even managed to increment at least 15% annually. The reason — the specifics of the kitchen: as a rule, the dishes are different small volume, thereby mark-up can reach 300%.

The average check, say experts, is steadily increasing by approximately 20% even in the crisis and troubled years. Is no exception and the current year. “However, this increase is due solely inflation”, — says Dmitry Pogrebitsky. A year ago, the average check at a school mid-price format was 120-150 USD., But now it has reached 150-200 UAH. “Only due to these factors — the rising cost of food and gasoline — the average return over the past year fell by 3-5%,” — says Olga Nasonova. Now the average profitability of the industry is 10-15% (if the space is leased) and up to 30% (if the building is owned).

In addition, restaurateurs have become more flexible in terms of concept. This, in particular, due to the fact that in most restaurants you can find a sushi menu. If restaurants had fundamentally and proudly defended the “purity of form,” now to do with it greatly simplified and the owners were quick to correct the vision in favor of the preferences of clientele.

Restaurants and football

Holding in the country of Euro 2012, in which both the growth factor referred to the representatives of almost all branches of the Ukrainian business to have, contrary to expectations, only an indirect impact on the restaurant market. “Many people want to make money — and newcomers, and networkers, despite the fact that this factor is fleeting. “Euro 2012 pushes the restaurant market, particularly in the cities where matches will take place already bought or rented space near the stadium and in the center, — says Olga Nasonova .- Restaurants in these areas are either already open or will open soon time “. In her words, investors are aware of short duration of the tournament, yet hoping that he would push for development of tourism in these cities, and thus these restaurants will be required.

At the same time, Dmitry Pogrebitsky notes that Euro 2012 will be too fleeting to have time to play a crucial role for the development of the market. “In Kiev will take only four games. I like this restaurateur does not inspire “- he says.


      The increasing number of institutions

    • to 15% by year’s end;
    • bet on democratic institutions — pubs, cafes and pubs a small area;
    • desire to purchase its own premises, depending on the minimization of the tenant;
    • Lower initial investment in start-up to 5-6 thousand UAH / square meter;

The appearance of a large number of

  • suitable accommodation at reasonable prices — due to plant closures and the prohibition of trade in the gambling business;
  • opening a large number of establishments in the cities, where are the matches of Euro 2012.



Top 3 restaurants of the world last year, new products

    1. At.mosphere Restaurant in Dubai. The uniqueness of this institution is that it is at an altitude of 442 m above the ground, the 122-floor skyscraper “Burj Dubai”, which is the highest building in the world. It is nearly 100 m higher than that of the former record holder, — The 360 ??Restaurant in Toronto, which was located at an altitude of 351 m in the TV tower. The restaurant offers mostly European dishes and can accommodate up to 120 guests simultaneously. Visitors should be aware that the “Burj Dubai” increased security measures are observed, so the tables in the restaurant must be booked in advance. Temporal gap required the administration to verify the data.
    2. Restaurant Djuret («animal») in the Old Town of Stockholm. “In principle, the meat” restaurant, the answer mode on vegetarianism. The institution implements the concept of a dinner in which all components of the dishes are made from a single animal. Restaurant practicing theme days, each of which is devoted to a new animal. The concept of the restaurant is reflected in the interior: the walls are lined with plaster casts of body parts of animals that illustrate the position of the menu. Restaurant closely monitors the quality of meat products, declaring the rejection of genetically modified ingredients, and environmental friendliness of its food.
    3. Restaurant Dalu Robot, the city of Jinan in northern China. The first restaurant, which serves visitors robots. Waiters, androids are able to accept the order, say a few phrases of greeting and generally look quite friendly. Move around the room for bikes: the machines are equipped with sensors that prevent a clash with “colleagues”. Of the shortcomings of ideas — what are the waiters can not place the equipment on tables, drinks and dishes — they just drive up the order to the table, and then visitors have managed themselves. Unit cost of such a “staff” — about $ 6 thousand now these androids, waiters 10 units, is planned to increase their number to thirty.


Business Secrets: Richard Branson

2011 Interview with Richard Branson, the founder of Virgin to Oleg Tinkov and Oleg Anisimov.

Pyotr Aven: “On the STS-Media, we earned $ 1.16 billion”

In May, one of the largest companies in Russia, “Alfa-Group” (which is also represented in Ukraine), got rid of the television assets, selling the bank “Russia” 25.2% of shares “STS Media” — the owner of CTC channel, ” Home “and their clients. The details of the sale Yury Kovalchuk «STS Media» says co-owner of “Alfa”, the president of Alfa Bank, Pyotr Aven.

— Are you satisfied with the results of the transaction?

— Absolutely.

— turns out, Alfa Group has sold 25.3% stake in CTC Media a premium of over 40% of the market.
— It’s not quite true. At the time the transaction was a 20% premium to the average market price for six months. Then the stock price fell, so the deal now looks more favorable.

— In any case, premium 20% blocking stake is too high.

— It’s normal commercial terms. Nothing fancy no one offered to us. Given the fact that our package gives more rights than just blocking. By agreement of the shareholders, we actually shared control with Modern Times Group (MTG owned 38,3% CTC Media ). We really have equal rights in managing the company with our Swedish partner. The new shareholders’ agreement was rewritten almost unchanged. Yury Kovalchuk structure in STS have exactly the same rights as MTG. The new shareholder remains in force and the possibility of an exchange of shares with MTG, which we have negotiated for themselves. Therefore, 20% premium to the market is absolutely justified.

— What is the return on investment was Alfa Group?

— We started from a purely financial operations: in 1996-1997 to $ 6.5 million bought the rights to the debt of American companies StoryFirst Communication, which at that time owned the CTC. After the 1998 crisis, it became clear that the company can not pay. We evaluated the debt of $ 10 million, underpaid StoryFirst Communication has $ 8 million and gained from it about 20% of TSS. And nearly 6% in 2004, bought additional approximately $ 17 million

— It turns out that you spent on the purchase of a package of $ 31.5 million and sold it for $ 1.072 billion, the output is worth 34 times more.

— In total, more: $ 30 million came in the form of dividends, and about $ 60 million — during the IPO CTC. That is, in total we have received from this project is about $ 1.16 billion when we started to fly, could not even come close to imagine what will be the return on investment. This is largely due to the fact that the market is rapidly growing.

— At what point did you realize that it was time to part with the CTC?

— We wanted to IPO, knowing that it will give a strong impetus to growth. After the IPO in 2006, we were quite ready to sell.

— Were there many suggestions?

— No serious offers to buy our package of STS was never.

— And you were looking for a buyer?

— Enabled — no. We believed that this is a good package, it grows well. But we have always declared their willingness to sell it. For us, investment in STS has always been financial, not strategic.

— Why a result of the package is sold Kovalchuk?

— This question is not for me. I think Kovalchuk structures are now in a unique situation: they have already had a lot of media assets, and buying the CTC, they were nedogonyaemymi. Now it is the largest mediainvestory can say “Russian Murdoch.” In this sense, they are firmly staked out the position of industry leader. This act was very logical.

— How long were negotiations with Kovalchuk?

— We talked with George and his boys Valentinovich at least six months, maybe longer. Discussed the different schemes: first option considered by their gradual entry into the capital of the company, it was assumed that they would buy half, and two years later the rest. Buyers want to get acquainted with the business JTS. They believed that we are able to manage the company, as shareholders, and wanted us to help them gradually enter into the company. At some point, they have proposed to buy everything at once. I was approached with a request to remain co-chairman of the board of directors for another year. This was the condition of the deal. The second is co-CEO Hans-Holger MTG Albrecht.

— you agreed to with pleasure or without?

— We were engaged by more than 12 years. Psychologically difficult to drop everything at once, I’d like to get it all on to develop normally. For these reasons, I agreed. On the one hand, I feel a moral responsibility, on the other — the buyers insist on it.

— What changes in your work?

— My function will remain the same. I will help develop the company. Moreover, I am going to buy myself a little, a few million dollars stake in CTC. I think it would be morally right and economically advantageous. It is stupid to do something, having no material interest. On the other hand, is a good sign for investors, a sign that I believe in the company. Today the shares are cheap, but I am absolutely convinced that they can cost significantly more. Shares fell after our deal, because there was uncertainty in the market. While no one knows what will happen and how. But I am confident that the company will be completely normal development. What’s more, the arrival of the bank “Russia” and aid Yuri Valentinovich give a new impetus for development. I sincerely believe that the company has very good prospects.

— From Kovalchuk who led the negotiations?

— I talked with Kovalchuk directly.

— How do you imagine the strategy of the new shareholder?

— I believe that he is doing is perfectly reasonable.

— There’s more politics or business?

— I’m not very versed in politics. From a business perspective, of course, buyers have a large number of disparate assets. If everything is right slap together, they begin to manage well, I think it would be a very serious story. They can create a really big company. They share in the “First”, “Fifth” and Ren, three channels in the STS. This is a unique platform for the construction of the holding.

I do not want to brag, but CTC today — it’s very western, very well built up a company in the market, with the most serious financial discipline. The company is listed on NASDAQ. With partners, too, everything is in order: MTG — a very good partner. I think it was a very wise decision. I’m sure they were right.

— you know, as Kovalchuk will “sculpt” your megamediaholding?

— There are many different options. They need to hire an investment bank or banks, and think together about the different stories. The vision of some ideas from them, of course, there is, but to decide in what direction all this build, you need serious discussion. Today, it seems to me that they have knowledge and understanding do not have, but it’s natural. I’m sure that will be dismantled.

— Which banks Kovalchuk works now?

— In a deal no foreign banks did not participate, we did it all ourselves — Alfa-Bank and the Bank “Russia”.

— now, just going a period of accumulation?

— Yes. At least in the CCC next year nothing will happen, will only be a reflection of new realities. The company will work as work. My task is to preserve and develop what has been built. I think that this dogma is identical to the desire of the new shareholder.

— Some new people come in STS?

— Specific plans to entice some people c no other channels. We have to date assembled a good team with him and we’ll move on. All it was, and remains, will not change either in terms of personnel policy, either in terms of the concept of the channel. Management will not change unless someone did not want to leave. No revolutions, no plans. The fact that I was co-chaired the board of directors, said about the succession of the course. The course will be exactly the same as it was. Today, we are not going to change anything.

— Do you think the CCC — the last purchase or Kovalchuk will be more?

— I do not know. They have accumulated enough assets that are difficult to digest. I think the STS will become a center of crystallization around which everything will be built. STS — quoted, clear the company, if something “to cling”, just to the CTC, which can become the center of this empire. The result is a media holding, which in Russia has ever had.

— What are your partners for the STS responded to the arrival of a new shareholder?

— They have formally had the right of first refusal, we have made them an offer, I talked to them, explaining that, in my view, the arrival of a new shareholder — a boon for the channel. I introduced George Valentinovich with Christina Stenbeck, the mistress of MTG, with CEO MTG Hans-Holger Albrecht. It seems to me that they liked each other. And I think they get a very good partnership. Not all Russian partners they liked to, but against the bank “Russia” and Yuri Valentinovich their comments were. Mutual impression, in my opinion, it was quite good.

— you no longer want to invest in media assets?

— No, not going. We, as financial investors can enter into different assets, if we see some possibility, it can be and will enter, but we do strategic media assets will not. This is a very specific, time-consuming work, they can not do as a hobby. If you do media, you should only deal with the media. An example of successful mediabiznesmenov, the same Murdoch or Maxwell Turner, shows that it can only deal with very professional and spend it all the time. It is very difficult, very volatile business, in which, on the one hand, there is a financial component, on the other — a very strong creative. We somehow quite well balanced, but in principle, if this business, you need to deal exclusively with them. We definitely did not relocate there.

— But Kovalchuk enough other assets in addition to media: The bank “Russia”, “Sogaz” Gazprombank.

— It does not matter. It is important that the media holding for them — this is a strategic point. They are not financial, they are strategic investors, as opposed to us.

— Are there logic in which assets Kovalchuk gets on the market?

— I think so. They acquire the best assets. The industry is booming. According to forecasts of the advertising market will grow by more than 20% per year. Today, there are few assets that can grow well. Media, in terms of financial return, a very good asset.

— How to Alfa Group plans to spend $ 1 billion received?

— It’s not so much money for the group, only from TNK-BP in the form of dividends we receive a comparable amount annually. English football clubs and yachts just are not going to buy.

Rostislav Ordovsky-Tanaevsky: The first Soviet businessman

First Soviet businessman

Rostislav Ordovsky created his first business at the beginning of Russia’s perestroika. He now owns the networks, “Planet Sushi”, “IL Patio», TGI Friday’s, etc.

Victor Pinchuk: formation, privatization, kidnapping

December 2004. Kiev Independence Square at ten o’clock at night in a row boils “orange” crowd. Closely compacted well-groomed gentleman squeezes through the thick of the people of the tent camp in the middle of the square. This son of outgoing President Viktor Pinchuk, one of the pillars of the “criminal regime” in the jargon of the “orange” speechwriters. Some of the activists handed intruder leaflet. “Everything will be fine” — leaves Pinchuk sprawling autograph on her back.

In fact, reasons for optimism in a bit. It is not only programmed troubles, which he promises to rise to power of the “orange” and personally Yulia Tymoshenko. In your own home Pinchuk — the company “Interpipe” — for several months agonizing smoldering dispute with two minority partners, who worked with him since 1991.

Today, six years after the “Orange Revolution”, we can say that the forecast, which gave a frosty night Pinchuk on the Maidan, fully justified. “I am thankful for the fact that 2005 was. Then I realized keenly, who is a friend who is an enemy. I got the lessons that have helped me rethink a lot “- says Pinchuk, in December last year with great pomp celebrated its 50th anniversary. But if his fight with the government of Tymoshenko in August 2005 saw live the whole of Ukraine, the divorce with old partners went completely unnoticed. During the seven-hour interview Pinchuk strongly countered all attempts to learn about the division of property more than willing to tell it himself. But we still learned.

Victor Pinchuk was born in Kiev, but his homeland was Dnepropetrovsk. In the center of Soviet heavy industry career prospects for their parents was greater than in the capital of Soviet Ukraine. Victor’s father designed the steel mills, his mother taught at the Dnepropetrovsk Metallurgical Institute (DMetI). Gold medalist, Pinchuk wanted to learn from the psychiatrist. But in medical school documents had not accepted, and enrolled at Victor DMetI, where his specialty was the production of pipes.

“Our generation was lucky we were in the right place at the right time, with the necessary wealth of knowledge and relationships”, — says Pinchuk. He was lucky twice. First, the rapidly developing oil and gas industry in the USSR was in need of high-quality tubes, which had to be bought abroad. Secondly, to bring the socialist economy out of stagnation, the country’s leadership since the early 1980s, taking one after another, trying to economic reforms. One of them was the introduction of allowances for the official price list: businesses, which has engaged production of high quality, were allowed to sell it at higher prices. The hope was that the directors will actively introduce new technologies, as it will allow the state to save scarce foreign currency.

Pinchuk has not failed to take advantage of new opportunities. In 1987, a young employee of the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of the Pipe Industry (VNIITP) proposed that the leadership of Mogilev Metallurgical Plant deal. The plant is implementing its development, raises prices for consumers, then within a few years deducts “youth creative team”, led by Pinchuk — 7.5% of the profits. The scheme worked, the plant is listed honestly thousand sixty rubles to the account VNIITP, but management is not raised a hand to distribute the money to young innovators. Pinchuk paid 1,600 rubles, after which he decided to do business under the roof of the state structure is no more.

Pinchuk was the drummer of the original accumulation of capital. The scheme, which he run-in Mogilev plant “know-how — commodity — money,” provided the opportunity to earn up to 10 thousand rubles per month. A lot of the engineer, but the mere pittance compared to the financial flows that took place then through the centers of scientific and technical creativity of young people who have the right to cash non-cash Soviet rubles.

In 1990, together with his first wife, Helen Arshavoy Pinchuk has registered a small implementation enterprise “Interpipe” — such companies as the government once granted tax exemptions. Engineering — fun, but Pinchuk more clearly understood that the marking time until the economy is flying into a ditch.

Since it moved the ball rolling progressive disintegration of economic ties. In the summer of 1991, Pinchuk met in Moscow with Yulia Tymoshenko. She tried to put oil in the Dnipropetrovsk region. Oilers as the payment had not requested the money that is already worthless, and something tangible. At the request of Tymoshenko in August-September 1991, Pinchuk oilmen put several cars pipes.

February 2011, Viktor Pinchuk in his Japanese garden near Kiev

February 2011, Viktor Pinchuk in his Japanese garden near Kiev

In the autumn of 1991, when the Soviet Union de facto dissolved, Pinchuk cranks is much more complicated deal. At this time, cars and refrigerators purchased in Moscow at the Russian Commodity Exchange (money Pinchuk took Dnepropetrovsk branch of the bank Inco), Ukrainian miners arrived, they, in turn, shipped coal to the processing plant, which supplied coking coal to coke plant … At the end of a chain of Pinchuk’s fortune was waiting for — a few tens of thousands of tons of pipes. In contrast to the Soviet rubles, which were Pinchuk on savings bank, the capital has not burned down January 2, 1992, when prices were unfrozen in Russia and the Soviet savings at one point turned into nothing.

To turn this deal helped his classmate Pinchuk on DMetI Dementienko Alexander and Michael Schegolevsky Muscovite. Thus, the first de facto and then de jure “Interpipe”, two new partner. About a year later formed and the distribution of shares, and roles in the joint business: Arshava, Dementienko and Schegolevsky — by 12.5%, the rest — Pinchuk. Arshava responsible for the Bank Credit Dnepr, Dementienko — for current operations, Schegolevsky — for business, “Interpipe” in Russia. Pinchuk, according Dementienko, “oversaw the direction of the pipe and political” — in short, defines the strategy.

Alexander Dementienko

Alexander Dementienko

To build a chain of barter between individual plants Pinchuk quickly bored. “Not big and not systemically, — he explains. — It is interesting to work with countries and sectors. “In 1993, he negotiates the first such deal with the government of Uzbekistan. “President Islam Karimov signed a resolution that assumed a certain number of billions of irresponsible local money for the purchase of our company pipe diameter nuzhnogb them” — says Pinchuk. What to do with “insane billion” non-convertible currency? That somehow managed to convert a bank of Russia and Kazakhstan, something took no money, and cotton, zinc and copper.

Michael Schegolevsky

Michael Schegolevsky

In 1994, the business of “Interpipe” a new factor — the owner of the Dnepropetrovsk region Pavel Lazarenko. Lazarenko later go down in history as the most corrupt prime minister of Ukraine, and in the early 1990s, he imposed a tribute to the entire business on their territory. “Work has become more difficult,” — says Pinchuk. “Interpipe”, whose revenue in 1994 reached $ 300 million, could not escape the attention of the host region. Pinchuk then creates a corporation “Commonwealth” on an equal footing with the “Cube”, controlled by Yulia Tymoshenko, who was considered a protege of the governor. “She had good connections in Kiev and Moscow. It is the scale of thought, and we could complement each other “- explains Pinchuk. Distribution of shares — 50 to 50, “Commonwealth” two co-chairs — Pinchuk and Tymoshenko.

“Commonwealth” was engaged in the same things and “Interpipe” — changed the pipes for Central Asian gas, but the scale of business grew, according to Dementienko an order of magnitude. “All previous work can be called training, a pilot” — confirms Pinchuk.

Harmony was short-lived. In December 1995, Tymoshenko creates Corporation “Unified Energy System of Ukraine” (UESU). “She decided that all we have learned, and I thought, why share 50% of the profits?” — Recalls Dementienko. “We saw that the debts of the enterprises for gas rewritten to” Commonwealth “in UESU, began re-writing contracts,” — says Pinchuk.

Tymoshenko did not find the time to present their version of the conflict.

Peaceful divorce did not happen. In the summer of 1996 Pinchuk was kidnapped. Handcuffed businessman was allowed to make a call. Pinchuk Dementienko asked to contact the Chairman of Privatbank Sergei Tigipko and pass the requirement for redemption — $ 2 million. Tigipko, according to Pinchuk, “people connected correctly,” and two days later, the owner of “Interpipe” was released. On the future of the kidnappers and ransom paid to him is not known.

Was the kidnapping is related to the conflict around the “Commonwealth”? “I still have no reason to think so” — responds Pinchuk. Another thing is that while he was in captivity, officials crossed out “Interpipe” from the list of authorized dealers gas.

Pinchuk has attempted to return to the gas business. In Moscow, he was introduced to the owner of the gas trader “Itera” Igor Makarov. In Makarov had serious connections in “Gazprom” and Turkmenistan, which allowed him to get serious amounts of gas for export, but he could not sell to consumers in the CIS that could not pay for the fuel cache. Experience Pinchuk allowed to finish the chain and drive it made a strong impression on others. “It was such a good machismo — says the president of Alfa-Bank, Pyotr Aven, acquainted with Pinchuk in the mid-1990s. — The man responsible for his words, plus a seemingly real Europeans, not “scoop”.

In 1997, Pinchuk, head of the board of directors, “Itera”, and became its CEO Schegolevsky. “We had an agreement on exchange of shares — says Schegolevsky. — “Itera” was to receive 30% of “Interpipe” and vice versa. ” Prior to that, did not reach: in 1998, strained relations with Makarov, Pinchuk and Schegolevsky resigned from their posts in the “Itera”. They had something to do without it. Lazarenko in July 1997 and resigned from his post as prime minister in Ukraine began a new phase of privatization, Pinchuk and knew that he must participate in it.

Few would have thought in the spring of 2004, which fall presidential elections turn into a rehearsal for the Civil War.

Surrounded by Kuchma had different ideas about who move to succeed. Pinchuk championed the candidacy of the National Bank Sergei Tigipko. But, as remarked in his biography of second Ukrainian presidential political analyst Kost Bondarenko, Tigipko was “too glamorous and polished in a country which is poor overall cultural and material level.” To look convincing candidate full-grown economic planner, Transport Minister Georgy Kirpa, not to mention the energetic prime minister Viktor Yanukovich, who is put coal and steel magnates of Donbass. Once in mid-April, Kuchma chose Yanukovych, Pinchuk has expressed loyalty to a single candidate, and promised his support.

By this time, “Interpipe” has become one of the largest industrial groups in the former Soviet Union. He owned five tube mills, the largest in the CIS Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant, the shares in the three major ore processing plant. In orbit “Interpipe” network companies included in the Luhansk and Dnipropetrovsk regions, the Bank Credit Dnepr and Ukrsotsbank, the insurance company “Orans”. But Pinchuk was not just a businessman. He was twice elected to the Verkhovna Rada, where he created the faction “Labor Ukraine”, which is sometimes simply called “faction GІinchuka.” He owned three national television — ІSTU STB and “New”. In 2002 he designed a unique relationship with the president’s daughter Helen, a romance with which he began in 1997. Pinchuk resented being called an oligarch, but in 2004 in Ukraine was not a man who would better fit this concept, combining in one person business, media and power.

June 14, 2004 Pinchuk sealed an alliance with the “Donetsk”. The consortium “Investment Metallurgical Union”, in which the share was divided between Pinchuk and Donetsk businessmen (Rinat Akhmetov and Boris Kolesnikov) in a ratio of 44:56 for $ 800 million acquired in a privatization tender largest metallurgical complex of Ukraine “Krivorozhstal”. Competition terms were formulated so as to cut off foreign applicants — most notably the Indian Mittal Steel and the Russian “Evrazholding” and “Severstal”.

Later, Pinchuk has repeatedly said that the “Krivorozhku” the state had received twice as many than in all the steel mills, privatized earlier. But on the eve of the election campaign, this argument could hardly be heard, especially the opposition. The fact was that the state could get a “Krivorozhstal” more, if not artificial constraints.

Sale of “Krivorozhstal” was one of the main reasons for the polarization of the two political camps. Pinchuk formerly been able to maintain good relations with the environment of Viktor Yushchenko (despite the fact that the faction Pinchuk voted in 2001 for the resignation of Yushchenko as prime minister), but after the “Orange” announced the privatization tender for “stealing”, the bridges were burned.

In May 2004, Dementienko Pinchuk proposed to divide the business. He readily agreed. For 13 years, partners are tired of each other. Minority annoying tendency Pinchuk put in key positions, “Vikings,” it too often, in their opinion, “went on the principle of” losing money because of disagreements with then Tymoshenko, then with Makarov. Pinchuk today admitted that there was another, more important reason that pushed its partners to action — waiting for new leadership. “I have become radioactive,” — he said. However, the proposal to Schegolevskomu on property addressed himself Pinchuk.

After her divorce from Arshavoy in 1997 the share of the ex-wife in “Interpipe” came under the control Pinchuk. The rest of the ownership structure “Interpipe” was very confusing. Part of the assets has been issued to Pinchuk, a part — to a company controlled by Schegolevskim Dementienko and that since September of 2004, according to Dementienko, “decided to go together” and take a common negotiating position.

While the country’s raging political storms, the partners’ inventory and appraisal of the property company. As a result, assets to be division, were estimated at $ 3 billion. These are not treated “Krivorozhstal”, banks and television stations owned by Pinchuk personally. Thus, the share of younger partners had assets of 750 million dollars.

The coming to power of “orange” messed things up. Following the appointment of Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko Pinchuk had to wage war on multiple fronts. The Government has begun to re-irivatizatsii “Kryvorizhstal” and actually sided with the group “Privat”, challenge the results of privatization of the NFP, which resulted in “Interpipe” purchased for $ 80 million controlling stake in the company. In addition, the “orange” intervened in the divorce of partners.

Here, the testimony of the parties diverge. According to Pinchuk, after the “Orange Revolution” of his partners had “decided to increase the” efficiency “of separation.” “They have attracted some of the” orange “leaders for some motivation,” — says Pinchuk. Dementienko confirms that the business of “orange” camp showed interest in the assets “Interpipe”, in particular to the insurance company “Orans”. However, to involve them in negotiations with Pinchuk junior partners, according to Dementienko, not steel. The only “outsider” was Konstantin Grigorishin, who really had a good connection with the “orange”, in particular close to Yushchenko, Petro Poroshenko.

In April 2005, the Economic Court of Kyiv annulled deal on the privatization of “Krivorozhstal”. In the autumn the plant was sold at auction for $ 4.8 billion steel company, Arcelor Mittal. Parallel unfolding struggle for NFP. Shortly after the court decision “Kryvorizhstal” Prime Pinchuk caused to talk about the future of NFP. Pinchuk her arguments did not convince. Like “Krivorozhstal”, a majority of NFP privatized at tenders to participate in them were not admitted to all comers — including “privatovtsy,” which promised to pay for state block more “Interpipe”. In July 2005, 50% +1 share of NFP were arrested by the court. In late summer, “Private” was replaced by the factory management at an extraordinary meeting of its shareholders, but for the operational management of new top managers are not allowed. August 31 Pinchuk, gathered at the entrance of the plant about fifteen hundred workers at the rally, which was broadcast all three of his television. The next morning he phoned the president, said he saw the broadcast on TV. A week later, Yushchenko sent a cabinet to resign.

Negotiating with its partners, meanwhile skidded. The parties could not agree on price and allocated from the “Interpipe” assets. Junior partners have applied an armlock. In 2004, about 20% of the shares were issued at USB’s they control the company. Schegolevsky compares the situation with the divorce process: you can share with my wife apartment, but you can not take a wedding ring. “Ukrsotsbank — a ring of his wife, is not subject to division, it’s Victor Mikhailovich, no matter what it was legally recorded, and the apartment — it’s” Interpipe “apartment we shared,” — says ex-partner. Nonetheless, membership in the wedding ring has been called into question.

In autumn 2005, the banking market of Ukraine surged Western capital. There were pretenders and Ukrsotsbank. “In the first tender was attended by Ukrainian business groups, Alfa-Bank, OTP Bank, Intesa and a number of large bank of international groups,” — says Igor Jusko, who was in charge of “Interpipe” for financial direction. He won the Italian Intesa, has proposed a 85.42% stake in $ 1.2 billion. Pinchuk has already begun to effect a deal, but then stepped in and Dementienko Schegolevsky. “We set a condition that will not give up a stake in the bank, while not pay us to” Interpipe “- recalls Dementienko. The day before the signing of an agreement with Intesa to sell Ukrsotsbank, in February 2006, the Cyprus-based company Tempsford Investments Ltd, for which there were junior partners Pinchuk, announced that it intends the courts to defend their rights violated during the additional issue of 300 million hryvnia. On the other hand pressed “privatovtsy” who bought a few shares of Intesa and demanded not to buy Ukrsotsbank. The Italians were on their guard, the deal is hung.

The conflict around the bank led to the acceleration of the divorce proceedings. In June 2006, former partners have signed an agreement on the division of assets. On what they have left?

One partner said on condition of anonymity that the value of assets, and departed Dementienko Schegolevskomu, amounted to about $ 400 million — almost two times less than before the conflict began. About $ 100 million they received in cash. They also withdrew two network companies, 38.6% of the Mogilev Metallurgical Plant and a few other small businesses. “We parted in such a way as not to be associated anywhere — says Schegolevsky. — It was one of the principles of divorce. ”

Pinchuk has had another reason to celebrate. Because of a dispute with the partners and the group “Privat” deal with Intesa first hung, and then completely abolished. The second tender was won Unicredit Group, which offered 95% of USB’s 2.2 billion dollars. “So thanks to minority shareholders of Intesa Bank, we have sold nearly 1 billion dollars more” — smiles Pinchuk.

Pinchuk recalls in 2005 with glowing eyes. “When I stood in defense of Nikopol Ferroalloy with the workers, I experienced emotions, the likes of which has been and never will be, — says the founder of the” Labor Ukraine “. — It was very difficult and interesting time. I certainly would not change it for anything. ”

“Orange Revolution” uprising known as the millionaires against the billionaires. The uprising failed. “Nedooligarham” could not take the place of the Kuchma era oligarchs. Perhaps the case in some sixth sense that separates the owners of the fabulous state of the rest of humanity? “Mandatory quality of every billionaire — do not see the horizon of possibility. I see the goal, I see no obstacles — says Pinchuk. — It is important that when you charge the energy of others, do not believe in success. ” And unlike an ordinary businessman, making money, a billionaire by Pinchuk, makes history.

In April 2007, the Supreme Court overturned the court decision on the illegality of the privatization of the NFP. Pinchuk and Kolomoisky went to the world, whose conditions were not disclosed. According to Pinchuk, with Kolomoisky they now “neighbors” not only on NFP. “Together we entered into various Ukrainian assets, and my share in these assets, to put it mildly, not less than his,” — says he Kolomoisky saying that the share Pinchuk on NFP does not exceed 20%. The section “old” “Interpipe” and reconciliation with old enemies were on the background of a major restructuring of the business Pinchuk. In 2007, the management of core businesses Pinchuk was concentrated in the company EastOne. “Interpipe” has become a holding company dealing exclusively with the production of pipes and wheels. The global crisis has hit hard on the company, as well as on all branches, tied to investments in fixed capital: earnings fell sharply, the company was forced to restructure its obligations under the Eurobonds. Its revenues last year amounted to $ 1.2 billion. In March 2011, Forbes estimated his fortune at Pinchuk 3.1 billion.

Union Dementienko — Schegolevsky since 2006 did not break up. They continue to control 38.6% of Mogilev Metallurgical Plant, in October 2007, bought a stake in the plant “Fregat”, engaged in agriculture in Russia and Ukraine. They each have their own business. Dementienko owns a factory which mainly manufactures wind turbines, the Schegolevskogo share online lingerie stores, “Wild Orchid”.

Pinchuk remains open for only one issue raised by the revolution. The consortium, which acquired “Krivorozhstal” on first auction, the company challenged the re-privatization in the Strasbourg court. “We are patiently waiting for the decision in 2006 — says Pinchuk. — It can bring big surprises for Ukraine. ”

Fire, Water, and Pipes

The Way of the engineers in the oligarchs Pinchuk was very fast. In 1980 he earned applied science, in 1990 exchanged for gas pipes, and in the early 2000s he became a member owned industrial empire and three national television channels.

1995: “Community” with Tymoshenko

“Interpipe” and company “CUBE: Yulia Tymoshenko to create parity corporation” Commonwealth “, which for years supplied the gas to Ukraine from Russia and Turkmenistan in exchange for the pipe, while Tymoshenko has established UESU.


1996: The abduction and flight

Conflict with Tymoshenko and Pavlo Lazarenko Pinchuk forces withdraw from the gas business. His steal and released after a ransom of $ 2 million. Pinchuk moved to Moscow to head the board of directors of the gas trader “Itera”.


1998:Big politics

Having received the blessing of Leonid Kuchma, Pinchuk won the parliamentary election, which is written in the pro-presidential one of the factions. A year later, along with Andriy Derkach creates fraction “Labor Ukraine”.


2004: Orange mood

Together with Rinat Akhmetov, Pinchuk bought for $ 800 million of the country’s largest metallurgical plant “Krivorozhstal”. Presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko, who called the deal “theft”, wins the election.


2005: The victory over Tymoshenko

“Krivorozhstal” re-privatized: ArcelorMittal paid for it $ 4.8 billion. After trying to capture NFP, shown live on TV Pinchuk, President Viktor Yushchenko dismisses Tymoshenko’s government.


2007: Free at last

Pinchuk concludes the restructuring of its assets. All of his businesses transferred under the control of EastOne Group. In Dnepropetrovsk, “Interpipe” together with the Italian Danieli begins construction of its fourth pipe factory.


2010: Intellectual year

Time magazine included Pinchuk in the top 25 most influential intellectuals of the world. “Interpipe”, demand for which has fallen sharply, allows for a technical default on Eurobonds and is seeking a debt restructuring.

Kuchma of Pinchuk

Left to right: Andrei Klyuyev, Irina Akimova, Viktor Pinchuk, Kuchma Elena Franchuk

Left to right: Andrei Klyuyev, Irina Akimova, Viktor Pinchuk, Kuchma Elena Franchuk

In his book “After Maidan” ex-president of Ukraine makes no mention of Victor Pinchuk. But few excerpts from her do a lot more sense.

– In the Komsomol and the trade union, party and other officials in the original Ukrainian business, new, previously completely unknown person. That’s nothing to them is not easily given. They had not been asked and no waiting. They had to overcome enormous difficulties, to show the wonders of ingenuity and head … Everyone had to find a niche in the national economy and to pave, plow her way. And then manage to fix, but it is no less difficult. Our Ukrainian representatives of this breed I respect more than their Russian counterparts. We do not have industries such as oil and gas production, where you can get quick results and abundant, though not necessary to plow too hard (like plowing Khodorkovsky )…

“The Russian capitalist — a Russian capitalist” — not once have I heard in the Kremlin. I just nodded and added: “A capitalist Ukrainian — Ukrainian is a capitalist.” At the same “Kryvorizhstal” — a closed production cycle. We have our own coking coal, its iron ore. Sell ??a business to foreigners — so as to wrest the company from a country from the domestic economy. The owner of the alien can begin to dictate the terms of our industry …

Its capitalist can invite Bankova, precede it with a glass of tea or pour a glass and say it sincerely, “You listen, let’s go into our situation. Come together to raise agricultural machinery … ” And he, a capitalist is not going anywhere, will work not only for themselves but also to Ukraine. And with such talk to be a Hindu can not …

Forbes Ukraine — № 1, “Winter oligarch»